Languages

Available languages for the FJS-12:

Translated and linguistically validated:

  • Chinese Mandarin (Taiwan)
  • Dutch
  • English (UK)
  • French (Europe)
  • French (Canada)
  • German
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Korean
  • Norwegian
  • Polish
  • Portuguese (Brazil)
  • Spanish (Spain)
  • Spanish (US)
  • Swedish

Translated:

  • Arabic
  • Chinese Mandarin (China)
  • Danish
  • Indonesian
  • Malaysian
  • Thai

All translations are developed following a translation procedure that has been based on the Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Proceed for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: Report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. The procedure includes:

  1. Two forward translations into target language, done by two independently working translators.
  2. Reconciliation.
  3. Two back translations into English, done by two independently working translators.
  4. Review and discussion of the back translation report by the translation expert appointed by the questionnaire developer.
  5. Proofreading by a professional translator contracted by the developer.
  6. Pilot-testing on patients with cognitive debriefing.
  7. Review and discussion of the pilot-testing report by the translation expert.
  8. Finalisation of the questionnaire.

In the case of languages spoken in various countries, a cultural adaptation may be required. The process includes:

  1. In-country review of the existing language version in order to identify any words or expressions that need to be changed.
  2. Review and discussion of the in-country review report by the translation expert.
  3. Proofreading by a professional translator.
  4. Pilot-testing on patients with cognitive debriefing.
  5. Review and discussion of the pilot-testing report by the translation expert.
  6. Finalisation of the project.

 

Literature:

Wild D. et al. Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Proceed for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: Report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation.
Value in Health 8(2):2005. 94-104

Koller M. et al. The process of reconciliation: evaluation of guidelines for translating quality-of-life questionnaires.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 12(2):2012. 189-197